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What Is Int In C Programming?

What Is Int In C Programming

C is one of the most powerful programming languages in the World and it’s suitable for a wide variety of uses. Integer variables are one of the important data types that we end up using frequently in our programs. The RAD Studio and C++ Builder IDEs, while primarily intended for creating C++ programs are extremely powerful free C IDEs too for those who want to develop applications of all types. In this post, we have an example that shows what is a short int in C, how to convert an int to a string C, and a C++ example of how to convert an int to a string too.

As C/C++ developers we have a great selection of free C++ IDE and professional C++ IDEs. Tools like C++ Builder CEDev-C++, and even the BCC32 command line compiler. C++ Builder’s primary purpose is to be the best available C++ IDE which helps developers be at their most efficient and effective possible selves yet it is also quite capable of editing and compiling most C code thanks to C and C++ having a shared lineage.

What is Int in C programming?

In C/C++ language, the int data type is a signed integer, means it can be both negative and positive integer numbers (but not ‘real’ numbers such as 1.22, 3.1459 etc) with precision. These are the main data types that we use in C and C++ programming. Generally, we use:

  • int for integers
  • float or double for floating point numbers
  • char for characters
  • char arrays for strings

The int data type stored in the bits of bytes in memory, thus it has limits to hold numbers due to the way the computer hardware handles that memory. If you are sure your integer variable is always zero or a positive number, you can use unsigned int for the unsigned integer data types. When we use int. The int term is a Type Keyword, under the Type Specifiers.

In an example, we can simply use the int type specifier to declare an integer x variable and then we can set its value to 10 as below,

or we can directly set its value to 10 as below,

Integer variables are an important part of programming. Generally, they are faster than floating point operations and in professional programming it is important to declare integer values in the possible range of its values. That provides you to use different int data types to optimize your codes. This will result, faster and more useful applications. May be there is no meaningful speed for a single operation but if you are using hundreds of millions of these types, every detail about your variable type is important.

The signed and unsigned size of int is same. The range changes as given below,

Type SpecifierSizeRange
int
signed int
4 Bytes-2,147,483,647 to 2,147,483,647
unsigned
unsigned int
4 Bytes0 to 4,294,967,295

What is int in an example in C programming?

Here is a very good C example that shows the size of different integer types.

and the output will be as follows,

as you see all standard int types has 4 bytes in memory.

What is global or local int in C programming?

When we use int, int term is a Type Keyword, under the Type Specifiers. If you declare int type outside of the main() function or outside of any function it is a global variable that can be used in the main function or in any other functions, inside it is a local variable that can be used only in that function. We can simply use the int type specifier as a global or local variable in C as below,

What is the declaration syntax for the int types in C programming and C++?

The evolution of C and C++ and the underlaying hardware technology; from 8bits to 16bits, 32bits and 64bits operations bring new fundamental type terms. Normally an int data has 4 bytes size in the memory. If your data has lower integer numbers in a range, you can use short term to reduce the memory usage per data and this may help to speed up your calculations too. If you have wider range of numbers in your data, you can use long long term (yes, the word long does appear twice) when you declare an integer or an integer array. The fundamental type specifiers are defined well in the the Fundamental Types

In C and C++ programming there is Declaration Syntax Index that defines most of data type declarations. C has fundamental data types for the characters, integers and floating numbers. The fundamental type specifiers are built from the following keywords:

char__int8long
double__int16signed
float__int32short
int__int64unsigned

What are short int, long int and long long int in C programming?

The short int is used to speed up some operations if your integers are between -32,768 to 32767 in signed type or 0 to 65535 as in unsigned type. If a type has the unsigned specifier, its minimum range is 0 and the maximum range doubles its maximum range before. There are many integer types, these can be found in extended Integer Types docwiki section. For a short description, mainly shot int, int, long int and long long int has these sizes in the memory and their ranges are listed as below,

Type SpecifierSize Range (Signed)
short int2 Bytes-32,768 to 32,767
int4 Bytes-2,147,483,647 to 2,147,483,647
long int4 Bytes-2,147,483,647 to 2,147,483,647
long long int8 Bytes-9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807

What is short int in C programming and how we can use it?

When we use short int, short term is a Specifier Keyword, and the int term is a Type Keyword, both together called as Type Specifiers. We can simply use the short int type specifier as below,

in brief, we can use short term on its own too. Or if you want to know it is a signed variable you can use the signed short int term too. You can use the unsigned specifier to define it has positive integer number data only. All of them have the same size in the memory, 2 bytes. The signed and unsigned size of short int is same. The range changes as given below,

Type SpecifierSizeRange
short 
short int
signed short int
2 Bytes-32,768 to 32,767
unsigned short
unsigned short int
2 Bytes0 to 65,535

Is there a short int example in C Programming ?

Here is a very good example that shows the size of different integer types.

and the output will be as follows,

What is the short type of int in C programming?

In C and C++, we can use Specifier Keywords without using int as a short type of int as given C examples below,

As in int, short int examples you can use long int or long long int in examples as given above too. All of these different usages give your application to run faster in runtime, or maybe it is slow but useful in a large data range. Actually, this topic looks very easy, it could be explained with few words, but all the details above are important to get a more complete understanding of why the different int types exist.

In C++ Builder, int, short int, long int, long long int and other integer types are the same as listed above as in CLANG standards.

Although the free C++ Builder Community Edition is extremely powerful it is intended for students, beginners, and startups. If you are a regular business or do not qualify for the free community edition then you can download a free trial of the very latest full RAD Studio C++ Builder version.

C++ Builder is the easiest and fastest C and C++ IDE for building simple or professional applications on the Windows, MacOS, iOS & Android operating systems. It is also easy for beginners to learn with its wide range of samples, tutorials, help files, and LSP support for code. RAD Studio’s C++ Builder version comes with the award-winning VCL framework for high-performance native Windows apps and the powerful FireMonkey (FMX) framework for cross-platform UIs.

There is a free C++ Builder Community Edition for students, beginners, and startups; it can be downloaded from here. For professional developers, there are Professional, Architect, or Enterprise versions of C++ Builder and there is a trial version you can download from here.

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About author

Dr. Yilmaz Yoru has 33+ years of coding with more than 30+ programming languages, mostly C++ on Windows, Android, Mac-OS, iOS, Linux, and some other operating systems. He was born in 1974, Eskisehir-Turkey, started coding in college and graduated from the department of Mechanical Engineering of Eskisehir Osmangazi University in 1997. He worked as a research assistant at the same university for more than 10 years. He received his MSc and PhD degrees from the same department at the same university. Since 2012, he is the founder and CEO of Esenja LLC Company. He has married and he is a father of a son. Some of his interests are Programming, Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, Artificial Intelligence, 2D & 3D Designs, and high-end innovations.
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