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What Is Deque (std::deque) In Modern C++?

What Is Deque stddeque In Modern C++

The most powerful data storage arrays in Modern C++ are Containers and they are very useful to iterate and search members with their amazing methods and properties. A container is a holder object that stores data elements (a collection of data objects). std::vector, std::array, std::list are these kinds of containers. There is another useful container std::deque that allows you to add members to the front or the back of the member list efficiently. In this post, we explain what std::deque is and give some examples. Before that let’s remind ourselves what containers are in C++ programming and what are their types.

What is a container in modern C++?

Containers are modern data storage arrays in modern C++ and they are very useful to iterate and search data with their powerful methods and properties.

A container is a holder object that stores data elements (a collection of data objects). They are implemented as a class template to define objects that can be used with modern rules of C++ (The rule of 6), they allow great flexibility in the different data types supported as elements, they can be used with int, float, double, etc. or with struct types, they can be used with other modern types of C++, lambdas and templates. Thus, the developer can create different data sets in memory, these can be static or dynamic, they are safe and optimized well.

What are the basic container types modern C++?

The C++ Standards library defines 4 container types. 

  • Sequence Containers ( vector, array, deque, list, forward_list )
  • Associative Containers ( map, multimap, set, multiset )
  • Unordered Associative Containers ( unordered_map, unordered_multimap, unordered_set, unordered_multiset )
  • Container Adapters  ( stack, queue, priority_queue )

If you want to learn more about these each type, here are some basic details,

What Is deque (std::deque) In Modern C++?

The deque container (std::deque) (acronym of the double-ended queue) is an indexed Sequence Container defined in <deque> header that is faster in insertion and deletion on both beginning (by using push_front) and end (by using push_back) sides and its size automatically changes by insertion and deletion methods. The deque does not invalidate pointers or references of its members when you use these insertion methods or deletion methods, while the std::vector does. Its usage is a kind of similar to <vector> containers, members of deque are not stored contiguously, and there is a push_front() method.

Here is a very general declaration in modern C++:

and since C++17 it is defined under pmr namespace as shown below.

The std::deque is a very fast sequence container when adding or deleting new members but note that it costs much more memory than a std::vector too. We can use push_back, and emplace_back methods to add elements to the end, we can use push_front, and emplace_front methods to add elements to the front.

We can use begin(), end(), … iterations, and ranges to operate and list them. We can use the insert or insert_range() method to add pair values. There are other useful modifier methods, such as; clear(), emplace(), erase(), swap(), extract(), merge() operations.

There is no find method to search by a key value as in std::list sequence containers.

Let’s see how we can use it with some simple examples.

Is there a simple example about deque (std::deque) in modern C++?

Here is an example how you can define and add new members to the front and back of std::deque.

Here is another example how you can delete members from front and back;

Is there a full example about deque (std::deque) in modern C++?

Here is a full example about std::deque

For more details about this feature in C++11 standard, please see this paper; p1923r0

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About author

Dr. Yilmaz Yoru has 35+ years of coding with more than 30+ programming languages, mostly C++ on Windows, Android, Mac-OS, iOS, Linux, and some other operating systems. He graduated and received his MSc and PhD degrees from the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Eskisehir Osmangazi University. He is the founder and CEO of ESENJA LLC Company. His interests are Programming, Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, Artificial Intelligence, 2D & 3D Designs, and high-end innovations.
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